Purpose of seed certification

The purpose of seed certification is to maintain and make available to the public, through certification, high quality seeds and propagating materials of notified kind and varieties so grown and distributed as to ensure genetic identity and genetic purity. Seed Certification is also designed to achieve prescribed standards.


Certification Agency (Uttarakhand State Seed Certification Agency)

Certification shall be conducted by the Certification Agency notified under section 8 of the Seed Act, 1966.


Certified Seed Producer

Certified seed producer means a person / organization who grows or distributes certified Seed in accordance with the procedures and standards of the certification.


Eligibility Requirements for Certification of Crop Varieties

Seed for only those varieties which are notified under section 5 of the Seeds Act, 1966 shall be eligible for certification.


Classes Of Seed

Breeder Seed

  • Foundation Seed –I
  • Foundation Seed -II

Certified Seed


Eligibility Requirements for Certification of Crop Varieties

Seed for only those varieties which are notified under section 5 of the Seeds Act, 1966 shall be eligible for certification.


Phases of Seed Certification

Certification shall be completed in six phases listed as under:

  • (A) Receipt and scrutiny of application
  • (B) Verification of seed sources, class and other requirements of the seed used for raising the seed crop
  • (C) Field inspections to verify conformity to the prescribed field standards
  • (D) Supervision at post-harvest stages including processing and packing
  • (E) Seed sampling and analysis, including genetic purity test / or seed health, test , if any, in order to verify conformity to the prescribed standards
  • (F) Grant of certificate and certification tags, tagging and sealing

Eligibility Requirements for Certification of Crop Varieties

Seed for only those varieties which are notified under section 5 of the Seeds Act, 1966 shall be eligible for certification.


Field Operation

For Light Soil:-

  • The best wheat producing areas are those where cool and dry climate prevail during the growing season of the crop.
  • The areas which are moist and warm are generally not suited for this crop.
  • Sandy Loam soil is one of the best soil types suited to this crop.
  • In case of Rain fed condition practice of moisture conservation should be adapted and leveling should be done immediately after harrowing.
  • One deep ploughing every two years followed by 2 - 3 harrowing.
  • Every year field should be prepared by 1 to 3 harrowing followed by leveling.
  • If the field is having weed problem then stale seed bed technique can be used.
  • Let a heavy flush of weeds emerge and be destroyed with herbicide before sowing the crop, without any tillage on it.
  • Most of the weeds seeds germinate from the top 5cm of soil surface in about a weeks time, these weed seedlings can be destroyed either with a contact herbicide or by shallow type tillage implement like a spike tooth harrow.
  • In stale seed bed technique depending upon the availability of time and resources one or two flushes of weeds can be destroyed before planting of the crop.

For Medium Soil:-

  • The best wheat producing areas are those where cool and dry climate prevail during the growing season of the crop.
  • The areas which are moist and warm are generally not suited for this crop.
  • Loam soil is one of the best soil types suited to this crop.
  • One to two deep ploughing with soil turning plough followed by 2 - 3 harrowing once in 2 to 3 years is advised.
  • After harrowing leveling should be done to bring the soil to fine tilth.
  • 2 to 3 harrowings followed by leveling is advised every year.
  • If the field is having weed problem then stale seed bed technique can be used.
  • Let a heavy flush of weeds emerge and be destroyed with herbicide before sowing the crop, without any tillage on it.
  • Most of the weeds seeds germinate from the top 5cm of soil surface in about a weeks time, these weed seedlings can be destroyed either with a contact herbicide or by shallow type tillage implement like a spike tooth harrow.
  • In stale seed bed technique depending upon the availability of time and resources one or two flushes of weeds can be destroyed before planting of the crop.

For Heavy Soil:-

  • The best wheat producing areas are those where cool and dry climate prevail during the growing season of the crop.
  • The areas which are moist and warm are generally not suited for this crop.
  • Clayey Loam soil is one of the best soil types suited to this crop.
  • Two deep ploughing with soil turning plough followed by 2 - 3 harrowing.
  • Ploughings should be done once in every two to three years.
  • 2 to 3 harrowing should be done every year.
  • After harrowing leveling should be done.
  • In case of Rainfed condition practice of moisture conservation should be adapted and leveling should be done immediately after harrowing.
  • Very loose and fine seed bed should be avoided.
  • If the field is having weed problem then stale seed bed technique can be used.
  • Let a heavy flush of weeds emerge and be destroyed with herbicide before sowing the crop, without any tillage on it.
  • Most of the weeds seeds germinate from the top 5cm of soil surface in about a weeks time, these weed seedlings can be destroyed either with a contact herbicide or by shallow type tillage implement like a spike tooth harrow.
  • In stale seed bed technique depending upon the availability of time and resources one or two flushes of weeds can be destroyed before planting of the crop.

Nutritional Disorder

Nutrient Symbol Deficiency Remedies Resources
Nitrogen N Leaves pale green yellow colour. * Firing of lower leaves. Apply nitrogenous fertiliser such as urea Diammonium phosphate ,etc. * For recommended dose please see fertiliser management block. * If the the symptoms appear foliar applicaion of urea is advised for quick recovery of plants. NITROGEN CONTENT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZERS (%) Ammonium Sulphate 20% Ammonium Sulphate Nitrate 26% Urea 46% Ammonium Chloride 25% Calcium ammonium Nitrate 25% Nitrophos 14% Dia ammonium Phosphate 18%
Sulphur S Yellowing of leaves associated with chlorosis between the veins. * Older leaves remain green. * The younger tillers tend to stand more erect Use sulphur containing furtiliser as single super phosphate. * Apply 20 to 40 kg Sulphur/ha. * When sulphur deficiency is noticed in a standing crop,addition of readily soluble soluble source even 40-45 days after sowing can raise grain yields. SULPHUR CONTENT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZERS (%) Ammonium Sulphate 24% Single Super Phosphate 12% Paramphos 15%
Zinc Zn Small irregular light yellow patches in the centre of the leaf( 3rd and 4 th leaf). * They Join together into white green moltings. * Symptoms appear after 25-30 days of sowing. * Symptoms appear late when temperature is high for a long period. * Delays maturity about a week. In case deficiency is observed in the standing crop,foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 with or without urea is advised at an interval of 10-15 days thrice. For this dissolve 2.5 kg zinc sulphate and 1.25kg unslaked lime in 500 litert water. * Apply 25 kg zinc sulphate/ha by broadcast in light soil and 50 kg/ha in heavy soils. ZINC CONTENT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZERS (%) Zinc Sulphate 22 - 35% Zinc Chelate NaZnHEDTA 09%
Manganese Mn The deficiency appears in coarse texured soil under intensive cultivation. *Appear 30-35 days after seeding or soon after first irrigation. *Intervenial chlorosis of the middle leaves starting from the base extending to tips. *In the chlorotic region very small greyish yellow to greyish brown specks appear under mild deficiency. *In severity speaks enlarge and coalesec to form a band of pinkish brown colour in between the veins. * In severe cases necrotic lesions are developed. * Stunted growth and restricted root system. Foliar spray of 0.5% MnSO4 before the first irrigation and three sprays after first irrigation is advised at the interval of10-15 days. For this dissolve 2.5kg manganese suphate in 500 liter water. * Soil application 30 to 40 kg/ha manganese is recommended. MANGANESE CONTENT OF VARIOUS FERTILIZERS (%) * Manganese Sulphate 23% * Manganese polyflancohoid 5 - 7%
Cadmium Cd The right hand side photograph is of cadmium toxicity in wheat. Application of reclamation measures. * Liming of relatively acidic soils for cadmium and balanced use of phosphatic ferilizers. * Do not use Rock phosphate. * Stop the flow of sewage water, if flowing. * Donot allow dumping of sludge in the field. Liming of relatively acidic soils for cadmium and balanced use of phosphatic ferilizers.
Selenium Se The right hand side photograph shows selenium toxicity in wheat. No reclamation measures suggested. No reclamation measures suggested.
Moisture Stress Moisture Stress The photograph shows moisture stress symptoms in wheat. * The leavesof the plant droop down and give adull and dry appearance. Provide irrigation to save the crop. Use drought tolerant varieties in places with water deficiency.
Genetic Flecking NA The photo shows genetic flecking in wheat. No control measures known so far No control measures known so far. * Use varieties which does not show genetic flecking.

Seed Sowing

Seed Treatment:-

  • The seed treatment is generally done with the help of thiram , Vitavexor,Raxil at the rate of 1.00 gm per kilogram of the seed.
  • The seed should be well mixed with the fungicide so that almost all the seeds get the coating of the fungicide.
  • After treatment of the seeds, the seeds should be kept in the shade so that the fungicide remain effective at the time of seed sowing.
  • Pre-treated seeds should not be given the seed treatment again.
  • It is advisable that the farmer should use the registered or certified seed for sowing.

Seed Inoculation:-

  • Wheat seeds may be inoculated with Azotobacter or Azospirillum.
  • For inoculation prepare 1.0 litre solution of gur or rice gruel and the mix 5 packets( 150 grams each) of inoculants throughly in it and sprinkle over about 80 - 100 kg of seed and mix it.
  • For better effectiveness mix the above mixture in small seed lots.
  • First air dry the inoculated seeds and Immediately sow the seeds.
  • Do not exposé the inoculated seeds to direct sunlight and heat.

Seed Rate and Sowing:-

  • Seed rate for line sowing should be 90 to 100 kg /ha.
  • For normal sowing by kera pora method or by seed drill 80 to 100 kg /ha. Under irrigated condition.
  • Sowing by dibbling by 25 to 30 kg/ha.
  • Late sowing by seed drill 125 to 155kg/ha. under irrigated condition.
  • Under normal sowing conditions the seed rate of 100 g/ha is optimum under all conditions.
  • For Rain fed normal sowing 100 kg/ha
  • for rain fed late sowing 125kg/ha.

Fertilizer Management

  • Nutrients play an important role in the wheat production.
  • Well rotten farm yard manure (FYM) or compost should be applied at the rate of 15 to 20 tons after every two years.
  • The above will provide partially the requirement of nitrogen and will keep the soil physical properties in good condition.

Recommendations for rain fed tall varieties

  • 40 kg/ha nitrogen or 90 kg/ha urea.
  • 20 kg/ha phosphorus or 40 kg/ha (DAP) dia ammonium phosphate approximately.
  • 20 kg/ha potash or 35 kg /ha (MOP) muriate of potash approximately.

Recommendations for rainfed dwarf varieties

  • 50 -60 kg/ha nitrogen or 112.kg/ha urea.
  • 25 - 30 kg/ha phosphorus or.50 kg/ha (DAP) dia ammonium phosphate.
  • 25 - 30 kg/ha potash or.45. kg/ha (MOP) muriate of potash.
  • In case of rain fed conditions conditions apply full dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as basal.
  • Recommendations for irrigated early varieties 80 - 120 kg/ha nitrogen
  • If paddy, sugarcane, maize or sorghum were taken in kharif season then apply nitrogen at the rate of 120kg/ha.
  • 60 kg/ha phosphorus or.120. kg/ha (DAP) dia ammonium phosphate.
  • 30 kg/ha potash or.60 kg/ha (MOP) muriate of potash.

Recommendations for irrigated late varieties

  • 60 - 80 kg/ha nitrogen.
  • 30 - 40 kg/ha phosphorus.
  • 25 - 30 kg/ha potash.
  • Split application of nitrogen is desired in all the cases.
  • Apply 1/2 dose of nitrogen as basal at the time of sowing.
  • The remaining 1/2 dose should be applied at the time of 1st irrigation.
  • The remaining 1/2 dose should be applied or top dressed at the time of 2nd irrigation.
  • If full dose of phosphorus was supplied during the preceding kharif season then then the dose of phosphorus should be reduced to 1/2 (half) in the corresponding rabi season.
  • In case of partial irrigation that is if only two irrigation are available then the dose of Nitriogen, Phosphorus and Potassium will be 80:40:20 kg/ha.
  • In case of partial irrigation that is if only one irrigation is available then the dose of Nitriogen, Phosphorus and Potassium will be 60:30:15 kg/ha.

Irrigation Management

  • The most practical criteria commonly adapted for scheduling irrigation in wheat is on the basis of physiological growth stages, which are critical in demand for water.
  • If only one irrigation is available then irrigate at CROWN ROOT INITIATION Stage or CRI Stage (18 - 25 days after sowing).

Agronomic Control

  • The critical period of weed crop competition in wheat is about 30 to 45 days after sowing (DAS).
  • Solarization can be done by giving light irrigation in morning and then covering the field by polythene so that the weeds are killed due to heat effect.
  • Prepare stale seed bed and allow the weeds to germinate either by irrigation and then killing them by shallow harrowing.
  • Always use certified weed free seeds.
  • Timely sowing should be done.
  • Narrow row spacing and higher seed rate is effective in reducing weed growth.
  • Line sowing should be done to facilitate intercultural operations.
  • Plant population should be maintained to its optimum right from its beginning to minimize the crop weed competition.
  • Fertilizers placement should be below the seed.
  • Intercultural operation-using hoe to remove all the weeds in between the row.
  • Hand weeding either by hand pulling or with the help of khurpi.
  • Sickling is done when sufficient labor is not available.
  • Mulches like straw hay etc can be used and then these can be placed in between the rows to suppress the weed growth.
  • Herbicide rotation should be followed.
  • Fertilizer and crop rotation should be followed.

Chemical Control

Grassy Weeds:-

  • Isoproturon 1000 g/ha 28 -35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600-750 litre water for a hectare. / OR Diclofop-methyl 700-800 g/ha 28 - 35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600-750 l of water.
  • Clodinofop 60 g/ha post - -emergence (POE). / OR Fenoxaprop 100 g/ha post - -emergence (POE).

Broad Leaf Weeds:-

  • 2,4,D Na Salt 500 g/ha 28 -35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in600 litre water. / OR 2,4-D easter 250 g/ha 28 -35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600- 750 litre water. / OR Metsulfuron 4 gm/ha 28 -35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600-750 litre water. / OR Sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha 28 -30 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600-750 litre water.

Grassy and Broad Leaf Weeds:-

  • Isoproturon + 2,4-D 750 + 500 g/ha 28 - 35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600-750 litre water. / OR Isoproturon + Metsulfuron 100 + 4 g/ha 28 - 35 days after sowing (DAS) by mixing in 600-750 litre water. / OR Metribuzin 210 - 280 g/ha as post - emergence.>
  • Pendimethalin 1000 - 1500 g/ha as pre-emergence (PE).
  • Herbicides should be sprayed only when there is sufficient moisture in the field.
  • Spraying should be done when days are clear and sunny and the leaves are dry.

IWM:-

  • Stale seed bed + Isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha and Croos sowing in November + isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha pre-emergence (PE).
  • Timely sowing.
  • Proper placement of fertilizer.
  • Irrigated water should be free from weed seeds i.e clean water.
  • In case of recurring weed problems crop rotation should be followed.
  • First weeding should be done within 25-30 days after sowing.
  • Inclusion of fodder crops like bereem etc in the crop rotation.
  • By adopting zero tillage measures.
  • Removal of weeds seeds while threshing.

Inter Cultural Operations

  • This is an important operation required in the wheat field so as to obtain high optimum yields.
  • Inter culture operation involves removing the weeds from the field that is from in between the lines and from the rows.
  • It also involves the opening up of the pore spaces of the field so that the aeration takes place.
  • This offers better root growth and the plants becomes more healthy and vigorous.
  • Inter culture can be done by using the hand hoe wheel hoe or bar harrow.
  • The first inter culture operation should be done at about 23 to 30 days after sowing.
  • Second inter culture operation should be done at about 45 to 50 days after sowing.
  • Care should be taken so that the wheat plant roots are not disturbed or damaged.

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvesting of Crop:-

  • Harvesting stage comes when normally the plant turns golden yellow and becomes brittle.
  • The grains become hard and the straw turns dry.
  • The crop should be harvested at physiological maturity when the grain moisture is around 19-20%
  • The harvesting time varies from zone to zone and state to state.
  • The harvesting should be done with the help of serrated scikle manually or with the help of bullockl drawn reapers.
  • Harvesting can also be done with the help combine harvesters they can also be hired as they are easily available on hire basis.
  • The advantage of using the combine harvetser is that it does the job of harvesting, winnowing and thresing at the same time.

Threshing of Crop:-

  • If the harvesting is done with the help of combine harvester then their is no need for threshing the grains as the out put is already in the from of threshed grain.
  • In other cases do threshing by power operated threshers / OR By threading the head of the wheat with the bullock cart / OR By beating them with the help of bamboo sticks / OR By running the tractor over the heads.
  • By doing the above operations the grains are seperated from the head
  • Thus thses grains are dried on the thrershing floor for reducing the grain moisture percentage.

Winnowing of Crop:-

  • If the harvesting is done with the help of combine harvester then their is no need for winnowing as the grain out put is already in the from of winnowed and cleaned grain.
  • Winnowing can also be manually with the help of dropping the grains from certain height so as to remove the impurities from the grain lot due to the motion of the wind current.
  • The grains and the impurities are separated and are collected separately.
  • Winnowing can also be done by the power operated winnowers.

Post Harvest Technology

Drying:-

  • The winnowed grains are dried in the sun for at least 5 to 8 days so that the moisture percentage of the grains is reduced for safe storage conditions.
  • The grains are dried by spreading out the grain on the threshing floor
  • The above process is repeated for many days till the grain moisture percentage is reduced to around 13 to 14% considerably to an extent such that the crop can be safely stored.
  • Drying is done to reduce the moisture percentage to a level of about13 to 12%. (This moisture level is safe for storage).

Storage:-

  • Storing of the wheat grains is done at a moisture percentage of about 12%
  • Economic storage methods involve Metallic drums, Polythene bags, Gunny Bags and Earthen bags. Certain co-operative agencies also provide sfae and ensured cold storage facilities.
  • PUSA Bins can also be used for storage of the grain.
  • In case of large produce the grains are stored in big rooms that are free from the attack of insect pest and especially rats.
  • These big rooms are well made and are air tight so that no moisture and other insect pest do not enter the room.

Integrated Pest Management

INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT

  • Stale seed bed + isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha + cross sowing in November + isoproturon 1.0 kg/ha Pre-emergence (PE)

INTEGRATED INSECT MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT

  • Apply well rotten farm yard mannure.
  • In case of termite problem treat the seeds with chlorpyriphos @4 ml/kg of seed.
  • If termite damage is noticed at seedling stage apply treated soil by broaadcasting @ 175gm ai/ha of Endosulfan.
  • Use certified seed.
  • Grow resistant varieties if available.
  • Grow non host crops like gram or mustard for 3 years in case of recurring pest problem.
  • Early sowing is recommended
  • Deep ploughing of field soil in the month of May and June or in the days when the temperature goes up to the level of 40 degrees to expose the nematode population and dormant insect eggs and larvae to the Solar Radiation.
  • Follow mechanical seiving of wheat to remove the galls from the seeds. Rodent management
  • Trimming of the feild bunds to destroy the existing rodent burrows.
  • Collapsing the existing rodent burrows through flooding.
  • Use rat traps.
  • When rodent infestation is less than 25 live burrows/ha. Use Bromadiolone 0.005% bait ( 15 gm per burrow) to be placed inside the burrow.
  • When infestation is high use Zinc phosphide at 2-2.5 percent bait to placed inside the burrow @ 10 gmper burrow after prebaiting with plain bait. The bait material may be commonly grown cereal of the area.
  • Pour the contaminated seeds into water with 2% salt.
  • The galls float on the surface, remove them carefully and then wash the seeds in fresh water and the dry them just before sowing.
  • Do regular monitoring of the feild and if any type of pest is visible take corrective steps.

INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT

  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • Follow field sanitation.
  • Always use certified seeds.
  • Avoid late sowing.

Tips

TIPS FOR RAINFED WHEAT

  • Conserve soil moisture by adequate and effective bunding.
  • Mulching should be done with tree leaves, maize or rice straw for conserving soil moisture.
  • Remove weeds in the rainy season and prior to sowing.
  • Plough the field immediately after cessation of monsoon.
  • Efficient planking should be done to preserve moisture and to prevent excessive exposure of soil to sun.
  • Heavy patta/roller should be run over the field if moisture hs been depleted from the field.
  • Select the suitable drought resistant or tolerant variety for dry land or rain fed condition recommended for your agro climatic zone.
  • Always use certified/improved seeds.
  • If the seeds are not treated then treat the seeds with fungicides for the control of fungal diseases.
  • Control measures should be taken for termites and brown wheat mites.
  • Sowing should be done in last week of October to first week of November.
  • The depth of seed placement should be 5 - 6 cm.
  • The fertilizer should be applied as per soil test values.
  • If the soil test values are not available then apply 40- 60 kg nitrogen and 20 kg phosphorus per hectare.
  • Foliar spray of 3% urea can be applied at 50 - 60 days after sowing.
  • Fertilizers should be placed at least 10cm depth.
  • Hand weeding and hoeing should be positively done as soon as the cropi s one month old.
  • Termites and brown wheat mites are the important problems under rain fed conditions, adequate control measure should be taken.

TIPS FOR IRRIGATED WHEAT

  • Make the soil well pulverised by ploughing, harrowing
  • Make the soil free from clods and stubbles.
  • Select the variety suitable for your agro climate zone.
  • Always use certified seeds.
  • If the seeds are not pretreated then treat the seeds with suitable fungicide.
  • The most optimum sowing time for timely sown is upto 15th November.
  • The most optimum sowing time for late sown is upto 15th December.
  • Always use resistant and tolerant varieties.
  • Get the soil tested for fertility status and always apply balanced dose of nutrients.
  • Adopt proper crop protection measures.
  • Check the soil for Zinc and other micronutrient deficiency.
  • Keep all the weeds under control.
  • Use weedicides if necessary.
  • Harvest the crop as soon as the grain moisture content is 20% and maturity comes.
  • Adopt the recommended storage practices for safe grain storage.